We’re learning what life was like, specifically for the colonist building the New France settlements. Their lifestyles and ways of life were influenced heavily by the French traditions of their homeland, but new customs were developed as well to meet the needs of their new and young society. These early years in Canada have left their mark on the Canadian identity and heritage we have today.
Assignment in Two Stages: Primary Documents Study & Group Creative Project
Stage One: Studying Primary Sources
We’re going to read through (mostly) primary documents from the French settler experiences in New France.
You can use pen/paper if you prefer. (I’ll have copies.)
After reading, you’ll review the details you’ve noted and draw some conclusions/make some review observations of them as a whole, on the left side of the document and summary for the whole goes at the bottom.
Part of your mark will be based on this note-taking product: the observation points and summaries you develop to represent what life was like for colonist in many ways and the impact different individuals/perspectives played in what later developed into Canadian culture/identity
Stage Two: A Creative Representation of Your Observations
Either individually, in a pair, or small group, you’ll create some type of creative representation of the life of a New France colonist. Your goal should be to include some observations of any/all of the following:
lifestyle in general: social status, perspectives, policies, practices, customs/culture developed, life in towns vs country/farms, education
occupations: trappers, farmers, soldiers, intendents, merchants, land owners, relationship to environment
power structure of governance: alliance/rivalry groups
social etiquette or values at the time
control over lifestyle/laws/punishments
relationship with First Nations traders/people
lives of missionairies or impact of religion
economy: wealth generation from resource production/consumers, buying, trading, mercantilism method of France
relationship to France/Church
technology/innovations of the time
Project Options you can develop include, but are not limited to:
A dating profile, complete with emails exchanged with a potential love connection
A writing project: personal narrative, journal entries, letters exchanged between characters
Create a Twitter identity and develop tweets with fake usernames, to fake users, with relevant hashtags #NewFranceForever
Group: A pair or group performance (10 minutes long min) of a conflict or exchange between colonists
Pair or Group: develop a Podcast to discuss New France living (either in character or as yourselves)
Create a real estate listing, similar like a HGTV Show set in New France
Create music lyrics to reflect the ideas of colonists at the time (multiple songs)
Alternatives: What ideas do you have?
For any of these, students and teacher will co-construct the requirements/scope of the project, in an effort to create a somewhat-equal balance of the scope of the project compared to others
Evaluation for this project will be based on:
Audio recording of the planning session of the project. Through the oral recording, I will assess the quality and quantity of input each group member contributes to the project.
Final Product: evaluated by
Knowledge/Understanding of content relayed: concepts, ideas, interrelationships, events, roles, significance
Thinking with Critical/Creative skills: gathering, organizing, planning, interpreting, synthesizing, detecting point of view, applying historical thinking critically and creatively, connections made
Communication of meaning through various forms: clear expression, logical organization in written/oral/visualizations for different audiences (formal/informal) using the proper conventions/tools
Polish of final product: mechanics and techniques used to develop a completed project
History Curricular Goals:
investigate issues, events, or developments in Canadian history, with a focus on the development of identity and culture
select and organize relevant evidence and information on aspects of Canadian history from a variety of primary and secondary sources, ensuring the sources reflect a range of perspectives
interpret/analyze information relevant to study using various tools, strategies, and approaches appropriate for historical inquiry
use the concepts of historical thinking to assess the impact of various individuals on the development of culture and/or identity in Canada
evaluate and synthesize (combine) findings to formulate conclusions or make informed judgments/predictions about the issues and events you’re studying
Communicate your ideas, arguments, conclusions using various formats and styles
Specific to this Collision of Cultures in New France:
Set the Context: analyze the significance, for different groups in Canada, of various social, cultural, economic, and political practices and developments prior to 1774
including comparing various aspects of life among people of European origin living in Canada prior to 1774 related to religion, education, work, relationships with the environment, lifestyles, culture, gender roles, lives of missionaries, life in towns vs farms or seigneuries)
and analyze how these people responded to the challenges of life in Canada
describe the various practices and developments associated with the emerging economy (wealth generated by production/consumption of goods) in colonial Canada prior to 1774
including First Nations trade, the fur trade, fishing, the seigneurial system, mercantilism, land grants, etc.
and assess their significance for the development of Canada, including development of identity in Canada, including role of natural resources, alliances and rivalries, etc
Interactions and Interdependence: analyse activities of/interactions between various groups in Canada and how their interactions contributed to the development of Canada and identity
analyze the roles of various groups in colonial Canada prior to 1774
Book Chapter: “The Oka Crisis” Will Ferguson (section pgs 2-4)
Oral recording to follow along with while reading the chapter – embedded player below (Waldner 2019)
You can expand this player and download the audio, if it suits you better.
(Optional Viewing: Waneek Horn-Miller was a teenager within the standoff. She was stabbed by a Canadian soldier and later went on to become a Canadian Olympian. )
Poem #1: “Now That the Buffalo’s Gone” Buffy St. Marie (section pgs 4-7)
Comparative text: “Standing Rock” song re: NoDAPL pipeline standoff
Poem #2: “The Devil’s Language” Marilyn Dumont (section pgs 8-14)
Image Collage: the writer includes many specific references related to the methods and topics the Indigenous students were taught in the Residential Schools, including many forms of formal English speaking and writing, books about caucasian culture, Catholic beliefs, and others. This collage may help you understand the English culture was the focus of these schools. Note:You can click to enlarge this poster.
After viewing Representation Question in your handout: Which image with the different arrangement of words from the poem (below) is the best representation of the author’s tone, in your opinion? Note:You can click to enlarge this poster.
Documentary Viewing – Choice of films to watch
Club Native (Ask me for the DVD or a private link to watch online)
After watching the videos about the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, you should review a few key points, so you’re clear in your understanding.
Before the Charter existed, Canada’s Constitution document still belonged to the British. Decision-makers in Canada weren’t able t0 make bigger changes to reflect how Canad
ian society had evolved and grown, since the first Constitution document was written in 1867.
Pierre Trudeau campaigned in the Federal election saying he would patriate t
he Constitution document – have it returned to Canada and refreshed through collaboration of the Provincial Premiers and renew that Constitution document – making it truly Canada’s own.
The Balance of (Decision-making) Power was established by Sections 91 (giving Federal responsibilities) and Section 92 (giving provincial responsibilities)
When the Premiers met together with the Federal government, understandably they were concerned with being asked to give up any/much decision-making power for their provinces, and a Charter of Rights and Freedoms did that – asked them to give up some powers provincially.
Only four provinces were part of the original Constitution document – all the other provinces and territories were gradually added into Canada’s Confederation. The balance of power remained as was originally given by the Constitution Act. Being able to “refresh” the Constitution Act, though, meant provinces could negotiate for more powers within Canada’s workings or, at least, fight against the Federal (central) government from taking too much power.
The idea of a Charter, an enshrined, unmovable new addition to Canada’s Constitution (balance of power) unnerved many premiers, believing it reduced their own powers provincially. And it did – it meant provinces couldn’t pass or create new laws that would violate any of the rights given/protected in the Charter. They c
ouldn’t pass new laws provincially on things like:
who could and couldn’t get married
language use per province, especially in multilingual provinces like Quebec and some Maritime provinces
who was allowed and not allowed to vote, provincially
what religious practices could occur or restrictions on any
Quebec was especially strong in their resistance to ANY changes or additions to the Constitution documents. Quebec had been given distinct status and unique rights by Britain before Canada as a nation (the four original provinces together) even existed. Anything to further reduce Quebec’s autonomy, power over their own decisions, was fought and, ultimately, Quebec was left out of some of the final decisions because of that resistance.
The “give” the Federal (central) government had to acceptin order for the provinces to agree to accept the restrictions The Charter would put on them was a Notwithstanding Clause – an “out” that let a province violate certain Charter protected rights. This gave provinces the flexibility to keep enough decision-making power that they’d accept the Charter as a new part of Canada’s Constitution.
The Queen brought the document, the Charter was added to it, and all the premiers and federal leader signed it, except Quebec’s premier, though as an existing part of Canada his signature/acceptance of it wasn’t necessary.
What’s so great about the Charter of Rights?
It gives so many freedoms and protections to Canadians, even new Canadians, and it is a document admired by citizens of countries the world over.
The most significant part of The Charter – it creates greater equality in Canada when it doesn’t really exist.
The majority of Canadians cannot vote for new laws that restrict the minorities of Canada.
The Charter protects minorities from “the tyranny of the majority” – a quote from Pierre Trudeau.
Also, because it’s part of the Constitution document, it cannot be removed. It is entrenched in the Constitution.
Previous laws created to help protect minorities or Canadians were made in the form of Bills, but they could be removed or repealled by the next government if it didn’t agree with it.
Ex: The Conservative government under Stephen Harper passed the Same Sex Marriage Equality law, but it is only a Bill. When another Conservative government comes into power in the future, they could remove that bill if they had a majority government.
Ex: The Liberal government has ennacted a Carbon Emissions Tax Bill. When another Conservative government comes into power, they could remove that Bill.
Ex: Howerver, no federal government can remove the right to vote for all citizens – because it is entrenched as part of the Charter.
Canada is a country of diversity – we are made of many backgrounds and cultures. That means these protections for citizens are necessary, to protect their human rights.
There are limitations, though. The courts help government law makers interpret those laws and help identify times when some restrictions of rights are acceptable and/or when a province can use the Notwithstanding Clause to opt-out of supporting a protected right.
So if I asked you, could you develop a response to each of the following questions?
Who is a minority group in Canada or what makes someone a minority?
In what kinds of ways does the Charter protect minorities, and all Canadians?
What is your personal perspective of the Charter in Canada – would you say you’re proud of what it does for Canadians or does it concern you in some ways? And why?
Is the Charter necessary in Canada, in your opinion? Why?
Can you list specific occasions or groups that are protected by the rules within the Charter?
Describe what Canada might look like as a society if there was no Charter. Identify three distinct behaviours or laws that couldn’t exist without it.
Brainstorm your responses and the reasoning behind them and then record an audio reflection discussing your thoughts. Submit making sure the audio file has your name and Social 10 in it.
One skill that is worth practicing and developing is a familiarity with taking information compiled and developing an order to the information or categorizing it. This skill, for example, is especially helpful in being able to organize and sort supporting information in essay writing, like research reports or project summaries.
Your assignment and task is to sort the information provided and Format it (Organize It) in a manner that makes it easier to recognize some of the following:
the main ideas within the film
the supporting ideas that fall within each main idea
the sequence of big events that happened moving towards Britain’s take over of the New France territory
summarizing groupings of events together into simple steps – to break down the events for easier memory
There are organization styles to become familiar with, including the Five Notetaking Methods at this website. For the purposes of this assignment, select one of the methods listed in bold below to use in formating your copy of the Video Notes.
The Cornell Notetaking Method
The Mapping Notetaking Method
The Outlining Notetaking Method
The Chartering Notetaking Method
The Sentence Notetaking Method
For this assignment, choose one of the three notetaking styles and organize/format the video notes in the above Word Document and submit.
Take care to identify the main ideas/events to help break down the video information into pieces and the supporting ideas.
You may choose to write summaries after each section – a brief review of the main idea.
Each assignment will be formatted uniquely – your method of organizing may be slightly different than others’. Do your best to make sense of the video information, though.
We’ve learned there is a balance of decision-making power between government and the people. Protections exist in our government documents to ensure government cannot overreach their authority. It also requires they protect the rights of all citizens, though it is not an equal level of protection.
The following videos explain further the background behind several important parts of our Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
While you watch, you’re asked to develop the following in the given handout:
summarize the important elements of each section of the Charter, per video
create a list of terms or concepts that are significant, possibly new to you
develop at least one thoughtful question related to each video section. (Remember to aim for questions that require a fair amount of thinking and cannot easily be answered by a specific moment in the video.)
While the French were able to navigate their relationship with the existing Indigenous People of the territory of New France, other powers joined the competition for power over the region. Here come the British!
Intro to the documentary series:
You’ll meet some extraordinary men and women who’ve helped shape our country’s unique character. Perhaps no country has been as successful in finding its strength through cooperation and its identity through acceptance and respect. For generations, we’ve come together bridging cultures and communities, to seek a more hopeful future for all. That is not to say Canada’s history is perfect; it is not. There are dark chapters in our history that we have only begun to confront. But today we recognize the responsibilities inherited by past generations and entrusted to us by future ones. We know our success was built upon decades of hard work and rooted in Canadian diversity. And we know that a strong prosperous nation can be as united as it is diverse. The hope of this documentary series is that you’ll be as inspired by the stories of these heroic Canadians so that we can write the next chapter of the great Canadian story.
Instructions for viewing: There is a handout for your viewing focus that asks you to…
Develop a list of stages/steps that occur leading to New France taken over by the British.
Identify the significance and cause or each term below, as well as their influence or effect on Canada’s past
The large population of British settlers south of Quebec
You’re well-practiced at writing Literary Analytical types of essays, but maybe less sure about writing a regular essay or report. Here’s an instructional video that walks you through things to consider in your planning and organization stage, as well as looks at the body paragraph and a potential sentence plan for them.
Instructional Video: How to organize your report essay.
Here’s a screenshot of a potential outline for your body paragraphs: (image)
Here’s a rough outline for how you could organize your sentences in a report body paragraph. Remember to include transitions for smooth writing.
The second essay you’ll write for your Canadian Lit course is one that reviews the good and bad of the author’s writing in the novel you chose. While you read, it is helpful to look for examples that you could take note of and use while developing your essay.
As you read, keep a running list of what you like or don’t like about their writing, including things like:
There is a list of characteristics to consider for Fiction reading
And another list of characteristics specific to Non-fiction reading (true stories)
For Fiction Texts:
their development of characters – Are they believable characters or have a well-developed background? Are the characters (especially main one) slowly developed as the story moves on or does the author clump details of a character together at once?
the pace of the writing – do some things happen too slow or too fast? Some events that build in excitement likely should speed up in pace, but some authors develop them too slowly, which can kill the vibe of the moment.
what about language choice? Do they use too many unfamiliar words making it challenging to follow along with the idea of the story? Does their use of bigger vocabular seem awkwardly used, like the words don’t fit smoothly? Is the language written below the reading level you expected and is dull to read because of the word selections?
Length of chapters: Are the chapters too long to maintain an interest in what’s happening? Is there a natural and appropriate break developed between chapter events, or does that author stop chapters at times that are inconvenient for you as a reader?
Sentence writing complexity: Are the sentences comfortable to read or just at the right level of challenge for you as a reader, or are they too simple and short? Or could they be overly wordy and long, making it challenging to understand the writing.
Descriptive writing: Does the author do a good job of developing description in the writing, creating images for you to imagine as you read, or do they just “tell” a lot in their writing. Is the manner of their descriptive writing effective, or is it done poorly and falls below what you’d judge as “good writing”?
The Storyline: Have they created an interesting story? One that you’re drawn into and compelled to follow along with? Have they developed in you the reader an interest in the outcome of the story?
Supporting characters: Who else for characters has the author developed for the storyline? Are there too many characters introduced too close together so that it makes it challenging as the reader to keep people separated in your mind? Do they include too complex of a cast of characters that it’s hard to keep everyone straight, what their relationships are too each other?
Setting: How does the author use the location and span or placement of time to help support the plot elements in the story? Do things happen over the right amount of time or are they squished into too short a time period/drawn out into too long of one? Does the location support the plot or interfere with it?
Point of view: The author will have told the story from the perspective of a voice – was that voice in 1st, 2nd, or 3rd perspective (limited or omniscient)? Sometimes a 1st person point of view narrative can be limiting, so maybe was’nt the best choice or was challenging to accept as the reader. Did your author’s selection and development of the point of view work well or poorly in the reading, according to you?
Rising Action/Complications: How did the author continue to develop tension throughout the book? Did they drop it in occasionally and clumsily, or was it well developed and grew in a way that drew you in as the reader?
Climax: Did the tension leading to the climax moment in the book support that pivotal moment or did the climax happen sort of awkwardly, jumping ahead in intensity without being properly developed for the reader?
For Non-fiction Texts:
Word choice throughout the writing: by their personal choices, do they make it interesting and engaging for a reader, regardless of the complexity of the topic?
Inclusion of anecdotal stories (personal stories): are they developed clearly enough? Does the author tell you more than is needed or do they miss some key parts of a personal story?
Pace of the information: Does the author write too much about something that isn’t quite interesting, making the pace seem to drag on? Or do they give equal time to all topics, when they could benefit from expanding on some topics in the non-fiction that are more interesting to the reader?
Sentence variety and mechanics: What kinds of sentence variety do you notice in the writing? Do they stick to basic and simple sentence formations, or is it clear they play with the sentence variety, using repetition, parallelism or other techniques for personal style?
Method and amount of referencing included: Often times, non-fiction texts will include reference to several types of other sources, to help support the subject covered, like published journals, personal interviews, news reports, or statistics. Does your author include these smoothly and use the right amount? Or does their inclusion of their references and sources slow and bog down the reading, making it uninteresting for you the reader?
Writing suits target audience: It is often clear what target audience an author is writing to. If their subject matter is more serious, they’re likely writing to a more-adult audience. With the words they choose, the complexity of sentences and paragraph/chapter lengths developed, is it clear they’ve written to suit the reading and interest level of their target audience, or have they developed something too childish or mature to match the audience they’re likely targeting?
Agenda or bias that may be distracting: Some non-fiction texts are written with a particular agenda on the part of the author. They may want people to become more supportive or open-minded of a topic, so they may write with the goal of convincing the reader of a perspective; this may be distracting if you’re someone who can’t believe as they do.
Depth the author delves into the topic: Some non-fiction books may be written by a celebrity of someone with assumed knowledge on a topic, but their actual coverage of that topic in the writing may be quite superficial. Is the topic covered in enough detail to be interesting or is it only generally and vaguely discussed? Or you may find the opposite, that their coverage of a topic may be more academic or detailed than is appropriate for a general audience.
Canada is considered one of the best societies in the world with high quality of living. Part of that measurement is because there are strong individual rights protected by law in Canada. Their source is Canada’s Charter of Rights and Freedoms. This section explores that and what it means to Canadians.
These rights apply to Canadian citizens, including people with Permanent Resident status. They only lack two “Rights” other Canadians enjoy.
The Charter of Rights and Freedoms set out the protections for individuals, but as society changes and our needs so do the laws supporting those protections. The Supreme Court of Canada is the final say for laws in Canada.
Example: Ban on Sikh kirpan overturned by Supreme Court
Decision-making power in any country is of primary importance. Who gets that power, how they use it, who is excluded from it: these are all important characteristics that can change what a society looks like.
Example: If a single dictator makes all decisions, it is a very different type of society as a result, than if every citizens has a part in the decision-making power, like we do in Canada.
How is power divided in Canada? By the Canadian Constitution document.
It was first made and named the British North America Act of 1867
The rest of the land within Canada’s current landmass was held as colonies by the British. Parts of Canada were added to Canada as provinces and territories over time.
The decision-making power was held in Canada by government, but was still under the responsibility and authority of the British Crown, as part of the British colonies.
Canada was later given freedom from the colonies, becoming truly its own country, with autonomy (its own decision-making control).
An essential part of the original BNA Act are two Sections of the document which divide the decision-making responsibilities of the Federal (country-wide) and Provincial (regional) governments.
Section 91 – Federal responsibilities
Section 92 – Provincial responsibilities
The British North America Act was later amended to be called the Constitution Act of 1982 in a big ceremony where the Queen of England came to Canada and brought with her the original BNA document that established Canada’s beginnings.
Now a complete country made up of many provinces and territories, the federal Canadian government and provincial leaders negotiated an adjustment to the new document that would define how Canada as a country and society would function.
A big part or change in that document was the creation/inclusion of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Reasonable Limitations of our Charter Rights
It’s well known Canadians have protected rights because of the Charter, but not a lot of people understand those rights aren’t absolute rights.
Your rights end when another person’s rights begin.
This is an American politician running for President of the United States, but his comments on rights and personal freedoms explain it well and it works the same in Canada in many ways.